Clojure
First appeared: 2007
Typing: dynamic, strong

Clojure

Clojure s a modern, dynamic, and functional dialect of the Lisp programming language on the Java platform. Like other Lisp dialects, Clojure treats code as data and has a Lisp macro system. The current development process is community-driven, overseen by Rich Hickey as its benevolent dictator for life (BDFL).

Clojure advocates immutability and immutable data structures and encourages programmers to be explicit about managing identity and its states. This focus on programming with immutable values and explicit progression-of-time constructs is intended to facilitate developing more robust, especially concurrent, programs that are simple and fast. While its type system is entirely dynamic, recent efforts have also sought the implementation of gradual typing.

Commercial support for Clojure is provided by Cognitect. Clojure conferences are organized every year across the globe, the most famous of them being Clojure/conj.

Languages/Clojure/